He was hoping to disprove the contention of Jacob Bekenstein, then a graduate student at Princeton and now a professor at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, that the area of a black hole’s boundary, the point of no return in space, was a measure of the entropy of a black hole. Developments in Black Hole Entropy. This abstract approach has been championed by Wald (1993) as a road to black hole entropy in more general theories of gravity than general relativity. Is this possible at all ?There are several ways to justify the concept of black hole entropy (Bekenstein 1972, 1973). Authors: Jacob D. Bekenstein (Submitted on 8 Sep 1994 , last revised 12 Sep 1994 (this version, v2)) Abstract: I review various proposals for the nature of black hole entropy and for the mechanism behind the operation of the generalized second law. Note that a one-solar mass Schwarzschild black hole has an horizon area of the same order as the municipal area of Atlanta or Chicago. And we hope you, and your loved ones, are staying safe and healthy. Browse All Figures Return to Figure Change zoom level Zoom in Zoom out. \[\tag{12} Associating entropy with the black hole provides a handle on the thermodynamics. I had a look at Jacob Bekenstein's 1973 Physical Review D paper "Black holes and entropy" for the answer to my question about Susskind's presentation of the Bekenstein derivation of the formula stating that black hole entropy is proportional to horizon area. Sadly, Jacob Bekenstein, the forefather of black hole thermodynamics affiliated with the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, died in Helsinki on Sunday night. Bekenstein’s work on black holes, entropy, and thermodynamics initiated the field of black hole thermodynamics, which became the foundation for the science of quantum gravity. In thermodynamics one meets a similar situation: many internal microstates of a system are all compatible with the one observed (macro)state. ‎Jacob Bekenstein, an Israeli physicist of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, planted the seeds of a revolution of our understanding of space-time. Therefore, a string has entropy, which turns out to be proportional to its mass. Jacob David Bekenstein hebr. Black hole entropy counts the number of internal states of matter and gravity. For example, it is directly related to the hole's angular velocity in equation (9), and angular velocity of a thermodynamic system is an intensive parameter. He was awarded the Wolf Prize in … A stationary black hole is parametrized by just a few numbers (Ruffini and Wheeler 1971): its mass, electric charge and angular momentum (and magnetic monopole charge, except its actual existence in nature has not been demonstrated yet). Examples of this viewpoint are provided by Frolov and Novikov (1993) and by Mukhanov (2003). ‎Jacob Bekenstein, an Israeli physicist of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, planted the seeds of a revolution of our understanding of space-time. The atmosphere concept comes from Thorne and Zurek (1985) and 't Hooft (1985,1996); the last introduced the concept of a "brick wall" to keep the said atmosphere from contacting the horizon, and thus making the entropy infinite. Jacob Bekenstein, Physicist Who Revolutionized Theory of Black Holes, Dies at 68 Jacob Bekenstein, third from right, who won the 2012 Wolf Prize in … T_{BH}=4 L_P^2 \Theta ={ \hbar c\over 2\pi} {\sqrt{(GM/c^2)^2-(G^{1/2}Q^2/c^2)^2-(J/Mc)^2}\over r_h^2+(J/Mc)^2} \[\tag{6} Of course, if the entropy in the usual (chemist's) form is required, the above should be multiplied by Boltzmann's constant \(k\ .\), For the spherically symmetric and stationary, or Schwarzschild, black hole (see Schwarzschild metric), the only parameter is the black hole's mass\(M\ ,\) the horizon's radius is \(r_h=2GM/c^2\ ,\) and its area is naturally given by \(4\pi r_h^2\ ,\) or We here re-analyze an intriguing gedanken experiment which was designed by Bekenstein to challenge the GSL. : Gen. Rel. He was hoping to disprove the contention of Jacob Bekenstein, then a graduate student at Princeton and now a professor at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, that the area of a black hole’s boundary, the point of no return in space, was a measure of the entropy of a black hole. Sign up to receive regular email alerts from Physical Review D. ISSN 2470-0029 (online), 2470-0010 (print). Physical Review Physics Education Research, Log in with individual APS Journal Account », Log in with a username/password provided by your institution », Get access through a U.S. public or high school library ». \], \[\tag{11} \[\tag{2} All rights reserved. A stationary black hole admits a similar relation (Bekenstein 1973). Black hole entropy is the entropy of entanglement between degrees of freedom inside and outside the horizon. It will be the first law if black hole entropy is required to be a function of \(A\) and of nothing else, so that \(dS_{BH}\propto dA\) (Gour and Mayo 2001). \Delta S_o +\Delta S_{BH} \geq 0. Il est le premier à suggérer que les trous noirs ont une entropie et une température, il est donc le précurseur de la thermodynamique des trous noirs . The Bekenstein Family xv Photos ofJacobBekenstein xvii TheEarly History as SeenfromSomeWho wereInvolved 1 1. Dr. Jacob D. Bekenstein (b. Jacob Bekenstein : biography 01 May 1947 – Jacob David Bekenstein (Hebrew: יעקב בקנשטיין) (born May 1, 1947) is an Israeli theoretical physicist who has contributed to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation. : Foundations of Physics, 33, 271 (2003), Ruffini R. and Wheeler J. The physical content of the concept of black-hole entropy derives from the following generalized version of the second law: When common entropy goes down a black hole, the common entropy in the black-hole exterior plus the black-hole entropy never decreases. Including the black hole entropy in the entropy ledger gives a more useful law, the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) (Bekenstein 1972, 1973, 1974): the sum of ordinary entropy \(S_o\) outside black holes and the total black hole entropy never decreases and typically increases as a consequence of generic transformations of the black hole. Among his many honors, he received the Wolf Prize in 2012 and the American Physical Society’s Einstein Prize in 2015, both of which are often precursors of the Nobel Prize. A black hole may be described as a blemish in spacetime, or a locale of very high curvature. , \ ) string and black hole thermodynamics, Physics Today, 33 no... 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