The Battle of Singapore was fought January 31 to February 15, 1942, during World War II (1939-1945) between the British and Japanese armies. At the end of the war, rising Indian expectations continued to be unfulfilled, and inter-communal violence increased. It consists of Singapore Island and some 60 small islets. Alexander took command of Allied land forces in Burma in early March[57] with William Slim arriving shortly afterwards from commanding a division in Iraq to take command of its principal formation, Burma Corps. [46], The Middle Eastern theatre was quiet for the first few months of the war until Italy's declaration of war in June 1940. [74] The funeral was attended by the then Prime Minister Clement Attlee as well as Lord Halifax and fellow officers including Field Marshals Alanbrooke and Montgomery. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Februar 1942 in Singapur wird als die größte britische Niederlage im Zweiten Weltkrieg angesehen. (3) Maj. Donald Struan Robertson (d. 1991), son of the Rt. However, Churchill had been unimpressed by Wavell's reluctance to act. [57], On 23 February British forces in Burma had suffered a serious setback when Major-General Jackie Smyth's decision to destroy the bridge over the Sittang river to prevent the enemy crossing had resulted in most of his division being trapped on the wrong side of the river. Book flight tickets from Singapore to international destinations with Singapore Airlines. [35] In March 1932, he was appointed ADC to the King,[36] a position he held until October 1933 when he was promoted to Major-General. Here General Wavell inspects the Singapore defences. The Allies were also faced with growing numbers of Burmese insurgents and the civil … Wavell was born the son of a major-general in 1883. [6] The battalion stayed in South Africa throughout the war, which formally ended in June 1902 after the Peace of Vereeniging. Lady Wavell joined him in London on 14 July, when they took up a suite at the Dorchester. Thus, Percival’s chain of command was initially more illusory than extant. Societe Generale uses cookies to enhance the performance of this website, to improve your navigation, to gather statistics and to identify visits linked to media campaigns. [10] In January 1909 was seconded from his regiment to be a student at the Staff College. For example, our partnership with Sembcorp on the Myingyan power project in Myanmar. Writing to Mr Churchill on 16th January, General Wavell was obliged to say that ‘although the fortress cannon of heaviest nature had all-round traverse, their flat trajectory made them unsuitable for counter battery work.’ He could certainly not guarantee to dominate enemy siege batteries with them. Article Over 100 resolutions later: A look back over two years in the UN Security Council. Singapore General Hospital, Specialist Outpatient Clinic at SingHealth Tower, Level 3 If you or your loved one needs help, please call +65 6321 4377 for an appointment. "Was at Singapore General Hospital this morning to take a look at the start of COVID-19 vaccinations for healthcare workers from public healthcare institutions today. [52][67], In 1947 Wavell returned to England and was made High Steward of Colchester. Corrections? The fall of Singapore to the Japanese Army on February 15th 1942 is considered one of the greatest defeats in the history of the British Army and probably Britains worst defeat in World War Two. [17], Wavell was working at the War Office during the Curragh incident. Mon-Sat 7am-9pm (SGT) Email us We’ll reply within 24 hours Live Chat Mon-sat 7am-9pm Our Client Advisors are currently not available. As such, Singaporeans simply do not exist. Many of the aircraft that Britain planned to send to Malaya and Singapore ended up going to Russia in 1941. [47] The Italian forces in North and East Africa greatly outnumbered the British and Wavell's policy was therefore one of "flexible containment" to buy time to build up adequate forces to take the offensive. Photograph, 1938. In response, General Sir Archibald Wavell, in supreme command of the Far Eastern theatre, formed two scratch divisions, the 1st Burma and 17th Indian, into Burma corps (Burcorps). VS of a parade at which General Wavell takes salute. Churchill determined to relieve Wavell and after the failure in mid June of Operation Battleaxe, intended to relieve Tobruk, he told Wavell on 20 June that he was to be replaced by Auchinleck, whose attitude during the Iraq crisis had impressed him. Singapore General Hospital, a member of Singapore Health Services, is the public sector's flagship hospital. [116] Churchill’s attention did turn to Singapore when the Japanese were in a position to threaten the Malay Peninsula in January 1942. He watches Indian troops practice with mortars. The Japanese had also been reinforced by two divisions made available by the capture of Singapore, and defeated both the newly organised Burma Corps and the Chinese force. Percival also insisted on defending the north-eastern shore of Singapore most heavily, against the advice of the Allied supreme commander in South East Asia, General Archibald Wavell. Learn more about Singapore in … [52], Of Wavell, Auchinleck wrote: "In no sense do I wish to infer that I found an unsatisfactory situation on my arrival – far from it. [43], In April 1938 Wavell became General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) Southern Command in the UK. Singapore and Hong Kong might never have been attacked and the war with Japan, if it happened at all, would have been appreciably shorter. As a leading global long-term investor, our brand name access brings you untold opportunities to engage with a variety of leading partners worldwide, on a vast spectrum of work. You can change these choices at any time. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Call us Mandarin +65 3165 5066. He attempted to move the debate along—with the Wavell Plan and the Simla Conference—but received little support from Churchill (who was against Indian independence), nor from Clement Attlee, Churchill's successor as prime minister. The Viceroy Lord Linlithgow sent a signal criticising the conduct of the field commanders to Churchill who forwarded it to Wavell together with an offer to send Harold Alexander, who had commanded the rearguard at Dunkirk. Having fallen back in front of Italian advances from Libya, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Wavell mounted successful offensives into Libya (Operation Compass) in December 1940 and Eritrea and Ethiopia in January 1941. But a closer look reveals where the real responsibility for the Fall of Singapore lies. Be empowered by the experience. Alastair Gordon DSO RN. Indian cuisine, Chinese cuisine, European cuisine and even molecular. He attempted with mixed success to increase the supplies of rice to reduce the prices. Feltmarskal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (født 5. maj 1883, død 24. maj 1950) var en britisk officer og leder af de britiske styrker i Mellemøsten under 2. Singapore's famed coastal guns were mostly equipped with armour-piercing shells, designed to penetrate the hulls of warships, but ineffective against infantry targets. Quick shots of General Wavell and long shots of a Merchant Convoy at sea. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Moving to Southeast Asia as commander in chief, he lost Malaya and Singapore (December 1941–February 1942) and Burma (January–May 1942) to the Japanese. He comes into our story when he is made Commander … General Wavell is now at his headquarters, after a careful mination of the position in Malaya, and his deputy is with m. Admiral Hart has been in the same area for a longer period. [37][38] However, there was a shortage of jobs for Major-Generals at this time and in January 1934, on relinquishing command of his brigade, he found himself unemployed on half pay once again. [78] She survived him and died, as Dowager Countess Wavell, on 11 October 1987, aged 100 years. Wavell was regional commander in the Far East which included Malaya (and Singapore) and the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). His tombstone simply bears the inscription "Wavell". [10], In January 1918 Wavell received a further staff appointment as Assistant Adjutant & Quartermaster General (AA&QMG)[28] working at the Supreme War Council in Versailles. Eugenie Pamela Wavell, b. [72] After his death, his body lay in state at the Tower of London where he had been Constable. Problems in Burma tested Churchill s patience and he was removed from command to be Viceroy and Governor General of India. The country practices multi-party political system with democratic elections. General Wavell's review of the war situation bad that ring of sagacity and steadiness which one associates_ with his published words. Singapore is both an island and a country, but perhaps its best description is that of city-state. Graduating from Sandhurst in 1901, he joined The Black Watch, and fought in the Boer War (1899-1902) and on India’s North West Frontier. However, one of the crucial factors was Japanese superiority in aircraft. [8] In 1903 he was transferred to join the battalion in India and, having been promoted to lieutenant on 13 August 1904,[9] he fought in the Bazar Valley Campaign of February 1908. He disagreed with this decision but followed his orders. Wavell was born the son of a major-general in 1883. In mid-1943 Field Marshall Lord Wavell, who replaced Linlithgow as viceroy (1943–47), brought India’s government fully under martial control for the war’s duration. Wavell is on the left, with Brigadier Airtis and General Officer commanding the Singapore Fortress, General K. Simmons. Lieutenant-General Sir Archibald Wavell, 1938. [29] In December 1921, still a brevet lieutenant colonel, he became an Assistant Adjutant General (AAG) at the War Office[30] and, having been promoted to full colonel on 3 June 1921,[31] he became a GSO1 in the Directorate of Military Operations in July 1923. Felicity Ann Wavell, b. The New Paper Singapore News - Get latest Singapore news & top News stories today. [50] In Greece General Wilson's Force W was unable to set up an adequate defence on the Greek mainland and were forced to withdraw to Crete, suffering 15,000 casualties and leaving behind all their heavy equipment and artillery. “On 16 January, Wavell wrote him a most disturbing reply: “I discussed the defence of island when recently at Singapore, and have asked for detailed plans. [75], Wavell is buried in the old mediaeval cloister at Winchester College, next to the Chantry Chapel. [61], On 15 June Churchill invited Wavell to dinner and offered him the Viceroyalty of India in succession to Linlithgow. Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, KStJ, PC (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army. Sir, "Let us be clear about three facts: First, all battles and all wars are won in the end by the infantryman. British and Empire military forces under General Archibald Wavell and the Sultan of Johore prepare to defend Singapore against the Imperial Japanese Army by CNA January 21, 2021, 11:05 pm. General Assembly is a pioneer in education and career transformation, specializing in today’s most in-demand skills. BioNTech investor, amid worry over shortage, vows vaccines to be delivered for second shot. [76] St Andrew's Garrison Church, Aldershot, an Army church, contains a large wooden plaque dedicated to Lord Wavell. Again replaced in June 1943, Wavell was promoted to field marshal, raised to the peerage as Viscount Wavell of Cyrenaica and of Winchester, and appointed viceroy of India, a post that he held until 1947. GE also works with Singaporean companies on ASEAN projects. [58], In January 1943, Wavell was promoted to field marshal[59] and on 22 April he returned to London. Pownall did not arrive in Singapore until December 27, 1941, and then command was further altered with General Sir Archibald Wavell being appointed to the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, with Pownall becoming his chief of staff. After serving in World War I, Wavell, who was recognized as an excellent trainer of troops, became British commander in chief for the Middle East (1939). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Having fallen back in front of Italian advances from Libya, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Wavell mounted successful offensives into Libya (Operation Compass) in December 1940 and Eritrea and Ethiopia in Ja… [73] This was the first military funeral by river since that of Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson in 1806. By Associated Press Heavy guns of embattled Singapore thundered into action today against the massing ranks of the Japanese invasion army across the Strait of Johore where Generalissimo Sir Archibald Wavell declared the enemy must be stopped cold . GoogleMap View. [19] As a captain, he was sent to France to a posting at General HQ of the British Expeditionary Force as General Staff Officer Grade 2 (GSO2), but shortly afterwards, in November 1914, was appointed brigade major of 9th Infantry Brigade. VS of General Archibald Wavell visiting Imperial / Commonwealth soldiers in Singapore. … Claims of cowardice and desertion by Australian troops in Singapore surfaced in 1993 when a secret report by the British general Sir Archibald Wavell was discovered in London. [69] He had a great memory for poetry and often quoted it at length. The Germans were given the opportunity to reinforce the Italians in North Africa with the Afrika Korps and by the end of April the weakened Western Desert Force had been pushed all the way back to the Egyptian border, leaving Tobruk under siege. He attended Staff College, spending a year in Russia as a military observer, returning in 1912 to serve as Staff Officer Grade 3 at the War Office. William ‘Strafer’ Gott, my father’s cousin, was a general in the Western Desert under Wavell, appointed by Churchill to run the Eighth Army in 1942 and then immediately killed on his way to Cairo (and replaced by Bernard Montgomery). [10] In June 1917, he was promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel[26] and continued to work as a staff officer (GSO1),[27] as liaison officer with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force headquarters. Pay Later, Learn Now. “How many troops would be nee… The leading source for training, staffing, and career transitions, we foster a flourishing community of professionals pursuing careers they love. British Pathé. Shortly afterwards it was announced that he had been created a viscount (taking the style Viscount Wavell of Cyrenaica and of Winchester, in the county of Southampton)[62] He addressed an all-party meeting at the House of Commons on 27 July, and on 28 July took his seat in the House of Lords as "the Empire's hero". Monday 3 November 1941 "General Sir Archibald Wavell, C-in-C Far East, and Major General F K Simmons, GOC Singapore Fortress, inspecting soldiers of the 2nd Gordon Highlanders, Singapore… Writing to Mr Churchill on 16th January, General Wavell was obliged to say that ‘although the fortress cannon of heaviest nature had all-round traverse, their flat trajectory made them unsuitable for counter battery work.’ He could certainly not guarantee to dominate enemy siege batteries with them. WW2: The Fall of Singapore. The city fell to the Japanese on February 15th 1942. His glance omitted none of the fronts, actual and_prospec- rive ; though he spoke, of course, with most authority about the Eastern and the North African. [64], One of Wavell's first actions in office was to address the Bengal famine of 1943 by ordering the army to distribute relief supplies to the starving rural Bengalis. 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