Gen 1:26-30) — the world that, when sin entered, ‘was subjected to futility' (Rom 8:20; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 1034; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 34: AAS 87 (1995), 440. 352. Not only is he a knowledgeable interpreter of nature, speaking of it in images and parables, but he also dominates it (cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 60: AAS 81 (1989), 511. This requirement is rooted in the meaning that the Church herself attributes to her social doctrine, as a unified doctrinal corpus that interprets modern social realities in a systematic manner. The Church's social doctrine finds its essential foundation in biblical revelation and in the tradition of the Church. b. HUMAN RIGHTSa. [760 ]. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 56: AAS 83 (1991), 862. Social doctrine and the “new things”, I. BIBLICAL ASPECTSa. God longs to give peace to his people: “he will speak of peace to his people, to his saints, to those who turn to him in their hearts” (Ps 85:9).  Cf.  John Paul II, Address at Drogheda, Ireland (29 September 1979), 9: AAS 71 (1979), 1081; cf. These fundamental principles of the Church's social doctrine, moreover, represent much more than a permanent legacy of reflection, which is also an essential part of the Christian message, since they indicate the paths possible for building a good, authentic and renewed social life..  Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 75: AAS 79 (1987), 587.  Cf. The sale and trafficking of such weapons constitute a serious threat to peace: these arms kill and are used for the most part in internal and regional conflicts; their ready availability increases both the risk of new conflicts and the intensity of those already underway. 409. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 600- 602; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 23: AAS 74 (1982), 107-109. It is a farewell discourse which reveals the profound meaning of his life and can be considered a summary of all his teaching. 489. Far from being the work of human hands, it is one of the greatest gifts that God offers to all men and women, and it involves obedience to the divine plan. Nothing that concerns the community of men and women — situations and problems regarding justice, freedom, development, relations between peoples, peace — is foreign to evangelization, and evangelization would be incomplete if it did not take into account the mutual demands continually made by the Gospel and by the concrete, personal and social life of man. This commitment means that the relationships among family members are marked also by a sense of justice and, therefore, by respect for mutual rights and duties. An equitable distribution of land remains ever critical, especially in developing countries and in countries that have recently changed from systems based on collectivities or colonization. “Consequently in the practical judgment of conscience, which imposes on the person the obligation to perform a given act, the link between freedom and truth is made manifest.  Cf. With the Encyclical Letter Divini Redemptoris, on atheistic communism and Christian social doctrine, Pope Pius XI offered a systematic criticism of communism, describing it as “intrinsically perverse”, and indicated that the principal means for correcting the evils perpetrated by it could be found in the renewal of Christian life, the practice of evangelical charity, the fulfilment of the duties of justice at both the interpersonal and social levels in relation to the common good, and the institutionalization of professional and interprofessional groups. Letter Octogesima Adveniens (14 May 1971) 100, 100* 3 80* 4 11*, 80*, 81*, 574 5 80* 16 145*, 433* 21 461*, 461 22 189* 23 158 26 124* 27 124*, 126 28 124* 29 124* 30 124* 31 124* 32 124* 33 124* 34 124* 35 124* 36 124* 37 53*, 124* 38 124* 39 124* 41 349* 42 86 43 372*, 446* 44 372* 46 164*, 167*, 189*, 565*, 573*, 581* 47 191* 50 574* 51 525, Ap. By deviating from the moral law man violates his own freedom, becomes imprisoned within himself, disrupts neighbourly fellowship and rebels against divine truth”. From a moral perspective based on equity and intergenerational solidarity, it will also be necessary to continue, through the contribution of the scientific community, to identify new sources of energy, develop alternative sources and increase the security levels of nuclear energy. Acting in this fashion, the Church professes her fidelity to Christ and to his truth; at the same time she shows a maternal spirit to her children, especially those who, through no fault of their own, have been abandoned by their legitimate spouse. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Evangelii Nuntiandi, 29: AAS 68 (1976), 25. The question of truth is essential for culture because “it remains each man's duty to retain an understanding of the whole human person in which the values of intellect, will, conscience and fraternity are pre-eminent”. “Important virtues are involved in this process, such as diligence, industriousness, prudence in undertaking reasonable risks, reliability and fidelity in interpersonal relationships, as well as courage in carrying out decisions which are difficult and painful but necessary, both for the overall working of a business and in meeting possible set-backs”.. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 17: AAS 71 (1979), 295-300. The Church, the Kingdom of God and the renewal of social relations. Gen 2:24; Mt 19:5), and, freeing man from his hardness of heart, he makes man capable of realizing this truth in its entirety”. The reciprocity of love is required by the commandment that Jesus describes as “new” and as “his”: “that you love one another; even as I have loved you, that you also love one another” (Jn 13:34). Standards of living and greater economic productivity are not the only valid indicators for measuring the total fulfilment of the human person in this life, and they are of even less value when considering the life to come, “for man's horizons are not bounded only by the temporal order; living on the level of human history, he preserves the integrity of his eternal destiny”. This hope, rather than weaken, must instead strengthen concern for the work that is needed in the present reality. This transition is not limited to merely economic or technological dimensions, but implies for each person the acquisition of culture, the respect of the dignity of others, the acknowledgment of “the highest good, the recognition of God Himself, the author and end of these blessings”. The World Days of Peace are particularly intense moments of prayer for peace and for the commitment to build a world of peace. 166. The dignity of workers and the respect for their rightsb. Child labourf.  Cf.  Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 131. Indeed, ‘God so loved the world that he gave his only Son' (Jn 3:16). “Gloria Dei vivens homo”: the human person who fully lives his or her dignity gives glory to God, who has given this dignity to men and women. Connected with de facto unions is the particular problem concerning demands for the legal recognition of unions between homosexual persons, which is increasingly the topic of public debate. 731-741 IN BRIEF nn. Every social model that intends to serve the good of man must not overlook the centrality and social responsibility of the family.  Any excessive stockpiling or indiscriminate trading in arms cannot be morally justified.  The good of people and human communities is served by a structured dialogue between the Church and civil authorities, which also finds expression in the stipulation of mutual agreements.  Christians are called to work not only to provide themselves with bread, but also in acceptance of their poorer neighbours, to whom the Lord has commanded them to give food, drink, clothing, welcome, care and companionship  (cf.  Cf. There are many prayers that invoke peace for the world.  John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 47: AAS 83 (1991), 852. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. 509. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 44: AAS 59 (1967), 279. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio: AAS 91 (1999), 5-88.  The dignity of the person and the very nature of the quest for God require that all men and women should be free from every constraint in the area of religion. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1905-1912; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 417-421; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 272-273; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 433-435. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2424. These many and varied contributions — which are themselves expressions of the “supernatural appreciation of the faith (sensus fidei) of the whole people”  — are taken up, interpreted and formed into a unified whole by the Magisterium, which promulgates the social teaching as Church doctrine. In friendly dialogue with all branches of knowledge. The role of the State and civil society in promoting the right to work, 291. In Wisdom Literature, the king is presented as the one who renders just judgments and abhors iniquity (cf. 2003) CHAPTER SIX HUMAN WORK I. BIBLICAL ASPECTS a. Paul VI, Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations, 5: AAS 57 (1965), 881; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 43-44: AAS 59 (1967), 278-279. The memory and the experience of the Sabbath constitute a barrier against becoming slaves to work, whether voluntarily or by force, and against every kind of exploitation, hidden or evident. The dignity and rights of children, IV. 568.  In this way a Christian perspective is defined regarding social and political conditions of economic activity, not only its rules but also its moral quality and its meaning. Concrete findings should also provide the impetus for the immediate dismissal of theoretical perspectives and restrictive, insufficient operative criteria concerning the present dynamics.  John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 34: AAS 80 (1988), 559. Political community, the human person and a peopleb. Some components — such as the family, the civil community and the religious community — respond more immediately to the intimate nature of man, while others come about more on a voluntary basis.  Moreover, Sunday is an appropriate time for the reflection, silence, study and meditation that foster the growth of the interior Christian life. As the Sacred Scripture says: “They still bring forth fruit in old age” (Ps 92:15).  Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 23, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 26. 403. Seeking alternative solutions to war for resolving international conflicts has taken on tremendous urgency today, since “the terrifying power of the means of destruction — to which even medium and small-sized countries have access — and the ever closer links between the peoples of the whole world make it very difficult or practically impossible to limit the consequences of a conflict”. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 177-228.  Cf. In the family, persons are helped to grow in freedom and responsibility, indispensable prerequisites for any function in society. MARY - MOTHER OF CHRIST, MOTHER OF THE CHURCH nn.  Cf. Peace is the effect of the blessing that God bestows upon his people: “The Lord lift up his countenance upon you, and give you peace” (Num 6:26). Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Non Abbiamo Bisogno: AAS 23 (1931), 285-312. The Prophets would announce, for the eschatological times, a pilgrimage of the nations to the Lord's temple and an era of peace among the peoples (cf. Even with the knowledge that, at least for now, in certain countries the contribution made by child labour to family income and the national economy is indispensable, and that in any event certain forms of part-time work can prove beneficial for children themselves, the Church's social doctrine condemns the increase in “the exploitation of children in the workplace in conditions of veritable slavery”. In the particular Church, the primary responsibility for the pastoral commitment to evangelize social realities falls to the Bishop, assisted by priests, religious men and women, and the laity. John Paul II, Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850-851. 30-32. Rom 8:26), the New Testament grasps, in the light of the full revelation of Trinitarian love offered by the Passover of Jesus Christ, the ultimate meaning of the Incarnation of the Son and his mission among men and women. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 69: AAS 58 (1966), 1090-1092. b. Pius XII, Address to the Sixth International Congress on Criminal Law (3 October 1953): AAS 65 (1953), 730-744; John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (13 January 1997), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 15 January 1997, p. 7; John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 91 (1999), 382. Violence is never a proper response. The cultural dimension takes on particular importance as a source of strength in resisting acts of aggression or forms of domination that have repercussions on a country's freedom. 176. COMPENDIUM of Catholic Social Doctrine.  John Paul II, Message for the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations (14 October 1985), 6: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 14 November 1985, p. 4. “On the basis of his work each person is fully entitled to consider himself a part-owner of the great workbench where he is working with everyone else.  Cf. My predecessor, the late and venerable Cardinal François-Xavier Nguyên Van Thuân, guided with wisdom, constancy and far-sightedness the complex phase of the preparation of this document; his illness prevented him from bringing it to a conclusion with its publication. In the Letter of St. Paul to the Colossians, we read that Christ is ‘the firstborn of all creation,' and that ‘all things were created through him' and for him (Col 1:15-16). The Compendium, which I now present to the Universal Church, is a faithful and sure synthesis of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.  Cf. Thanks also to resolute action taken by these organizations, it will be possible to place the present process of economic and financial growth taking place on a global scale within a framework that guarantees an effective respect of human rights and of the rights of peoples, as well as an equitable distribution of resources within every country and between different countries: “freedom of trade is fair only when it is in accord with the demands of justice”. Baptism conforms the person to Christ, Son of the Father, first-born of every creature, sent to all as Teacher and Redeemer. In the common tradition of the Old Testament, the Catholic Church is able to engage in dialogue with her Jewish brothers and sisters, which she does also through her social doctrine, in order to build together a future of justice and peace for all people, as sons and daughters of the one God. The family unit, in fact, is born from the communion of persons. Without a roof over their head? It can also make use of sophisticated technology, often has immense financial resources at its disposal and is involved in large- scale planning, striking completely innocent people who become chance victims of terrorist actions. It assimilates what these disciplines have to contribute”. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2237; John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 92 (2000), 362; John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly.  Cf. 39. The likeness with God shows that the essence and existence of man are constitutively related to God in the most profound manner. Saint Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses, 5, 32, 2: PL 7, 1210-1211. The Church and the political community can more effectively render this service “for the good of all if each works better for wholesome mutual cooperation in a way suitable to the circumstances of time and place”. In a society in need of being rebuilt from its economic foundations, a society which itself becomes completely “the question” to deal with, “Pius XI felt the duty and the responsibility to promote a greater awareness, a more precise interpretation and an urgent application of the moral law governing human relations ... with the intent of overcoming the conflict between classes and arriving at a new social order based on justice and charity”.  Satisfying the needs of all, especially of those who live in poverty, must guide the use of water and the services connected with it. 542. This calls for a method of discernment, at both the personal and community levels, structured around certain key elements: knowledge of the situations, analyzed with the help of the social sciences and other appropriate tools; systematic reflection on these realities in the light of the unchanging message of the Gospel and the Church's social teaching; identification of choices aimed at assuring that the situation will evolve positively. Serious ecological problems call for an effective change of mentality leading to the adoption of new lifestyles, “in which the quest for truth, beauty, goodness and communion with others for the sake of the common good are the factors that determine consumer choices, savings and investments”.  Cf.  John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 94 (2002), 134. They represent privileged moments for the expression and growth of the lay faithful, who are then capable of making their specific high-level contribution to the temporal order. The truth concerning good and evil is recognized in a practical and concrete manner by the judgment of conscience, which leads to the acceptance of responsibility for the good accomplished and the evil committed.  John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 450. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church April 2, 2004 THE HUMAN PERSON AND HUMAN RIGHTS (Chapter III) OUTLINE I. 315. Christ, the Son of God, “by his incarnation has united himself in some fashion with every person”; for this reason the Church recognizes as her fundamental duty the task of seeing that this union is continuously brought about and renewed. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1882. Communications and information technology, along with training in its use, must aim at eliminating such injustices and imbalances. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2245. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 133-135; Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 200.  Saint Thomas Aquinas, Commentum in tertium librum Sententiarum, d. 27, q. Such a wage must also allow for savings that will permit the acquisition of property as a guarantee of freedom. Saint Gregory the Great, Regula Pastoralis, 3, 21: PL 77, 87.  John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 799. The new relationships of interdependence between individuals and peoples, which are de facto forms of solidarity, have to be transformed into relationships tending towards genuine ethical-social solidarity.  John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 50-51: AAS 93 (2001), 303-304. They tell us that the creation of man and woman is a free and gratuitous act of God; that man and woman, because they are free and intelligent, represent the “thou” created by God and that only in relationship with him can they discover and fulfil the authentic and complete meaning of their personal and social lives; that in their complementarities and reciprocity they are the image of Trinitarian Love in the created universe; that to them, as the culmination of creation, the Creator has entrusted the task of ordering created nature according to his design (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1706. 12.  John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 16: AAS 83 (1991), 813. 231. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio, proem: AAS 91 (1999), 5. Jesus condemns the behaviour of the useless servant, who hides his talent in the ground (cf. Work is “a foundation for the formation of family life, which is a natural right and something that man is called to”. Immigration can be a resource for development rather than an obstacle to it.  Cf.  Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 1034. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.  John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 8: AAS 71 (1979), 270. The rights of persons with disabilities need to be promoted with effective and appropriate measures: “It would be radically unworthy of man, and a denial of our common humanity, to admit to the life of the community, and thus admit to work, only those who are fully functional. Intimately united to the Church by virtue of the sacrament that makes it a “domestic Church” or a “little Church”, the Christian family is called therefore “to be a sign of unity for the world and in this way to exercise its prophetic role by bearing witness to the Kingdom and peace of Christ, towards which the whole world is journeying”. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2426. The rights of children must be legally protected within juridical systems. In the present cultural context, there is a particularly urgent need to defend marriage and the family, which can be adequately met only if one is convinced of the unique and singular value of these two realities for an authentic development of human society.  Cf. Mt 4:8-11; Lk 4:5-8).  Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Donum Vitae (22 February 1987), II, 7: AAS 80 (1988), 95-96. Code of Canon Law, canon 747, § 2; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2246. In this way man generates himself, he is father of his own being, he constructs the social order. 549.  Cf. Having entered into The Third Millennium of the Christian era, the lay faithful will open themselves, through their witness, to all people with whom they will take on the burden of the most pressing calls of our time. The heart designates man's inner spirituality, what distinguishes him from every other creature. Filling in the gap between the letter and the spirit, CHAPTER FOURPRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH'S SOCIAL DOCTRINE, II. This dignity must be respected in its specific characteristics and must be safeguarded against any attempt to undermine it. , IV. Insofar as it is part of the Church's moral teaching, the Church's social doctrine has the same dignity and authority as her moral teaching. This humanism can become a reality if individual men and women and their communities are able to cultivate moral and social virtues in themselves and spread them in society. This law is called to become the ultimate measure and rule of every dynamic related to human relations. The precepts of the sabbatical and jubilee years constitute a kind of social doctrine in miniature. The Church's Magisterium has not failed to note the positive value of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948, which Pope John Paul II defined as “a true milestone on the path of humanity's moral progress”.  Cf.  Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 421. The Church makes use of the juridical means necessary or useful for carrying out her mission. The commitment to this goal is translated into the positive contribution of seeing that nothing is lacking in the common cause and also of seeking points of possible agreement where attitudes of separation and fragmentation prevail. The identity of the lay faithful is born in and nourished by the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation and the Eucharist. They call on those who work in the economic sphere and who possess goods to consider themselves administrators of the goods that God has entrusted to them. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 600-602. 360. At the dawn of the Third Millennium.  Cf. At the root of personal and social divisions, which in differing degrees offend the value and dignity of the human person, there is a wound which is present in man's inmost self. 67. She is spurred on by the repercussions that social upheavals have on people, on multitudes of men and women, on human dignity itself, in contexts where “man painstakingly searches for a better world, without working with equal zeal for the betterment of his own spirit”.  John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 291. The rapid development of research and its technological application in the area of reproduction poses new and delicate questions that involve society and the norms that regulate human social life. Far too often, the civilian population is hit and at times even becomes a target of war.  The mere consent of the people is not, however, sufficient for considering “just” the ways in which political authority is exercised. In man's inner dimension are rooted, in the final analysis, the commitment to justice and solidarity, to the building up of a social, economic and political life that corresponds to God's plan. Such a spirituality will build up the world according to Jesus' Spirit.  John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 44: AAS 83 (1991), 848. No Christian, in light of the fact that he belongs to a united and fraternal community, should feel that he has the right not to work and to live at the expense of others (cf. On the contrary, its purpose is to create, on a world basis, an environment in which the public authorities of each political community, their citizens and intermediate associations can carry out their tasks, fulfil their duties and exercise their rights with greater security”. 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