The extreme example of soil pugging is obvious, but the effect of cattle simply treading on the plants and soil is often not appreciated. Price Differential refers to the difference is price per pound of calves based upon gender or quality. Production takes place almost across South Africa, with different breeds being suited to different climatic conditions and areas. Poultry also convert Animals should be brushed regularly to remove the dirt and bugs in their body. All cattle farmers must be totally committed to producing safe food. Crossbred. feeding practices followed. Cuts of beef refer to the portions of a bovine animal. In terms of total biomass they probably outweigh humans. Backgrounders are cattle operations that take weaned calves and feed them summer grass to add weight before being sent to a feedyard for finishing. Black Angus is the most common breed of beef cattle in the U.S., with more than 330,000 animals registered. This Factsheet is designed to provide the reader with definitions of terms used in nutrition-related articles, feed analysis reports and feed tags. Neat (horned oxen, from which neatsfoot oil is derived), beef (young ox) and beefing (young animal fit for slaughtering) are obsolete terms, although poll, pollard or polled cattle are still terms in use for naturally hornless animals, or in some areas also for those that have been disbudded. 1 Agriculture Terms & Definitions Adapted from the USDA Acid Soil: A soil with an acid reaction, a pH less than 7.0. Generally, cattle are purchased following weaning in the fall and are wintered on low quality feed until new grass can support the animals’ nutritional requirements. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States; older steers are often called bullocks in other parts of the world but in North America this term refers to a young bull. Breaks in the Chine: Breaks in the back (curve in the back) Broken over in the knee: They just buckle over in the knee, no one says it, is just an indication of lameness. In the beef cattle industry, PVP's are usually used to verify the age and source of cattle for export to various foreign countries. growth rate, milk production (high, medium, or low), and age at puberty. A yield grade 1 carcass provides the greatest amount of saleable beef while a yield grade 5 is the lowest-yielding carcass. Netherlands. Typically a producer uses either the straightbreeding or crossbreeding system. The purpose of this publication is to serve as an educational reference and resource to those who are interested in animal feeding and nutrition. The classification of the breeds of cattle which are now used in beef production is: Phylum Chordata (animals with a backbone) Class Mammalia (milk producing) Order Artiodactyla (even-toed, hoofed) Suborder Ruminata (cud chewing) Family Bovidae (hollow horn) Genus Bos (ruminant quadripeds) Species taurus indicus (European domestic breeds) (humped cattle) Note: Other species of Bos have … The most common use for beet pulp is in show cattle diets or in horse feeds. This production system is defined by the use of ruminant species, principally cattle, where feed is mainly introduced from outside the farm system. Ruminants are therefore extremely important; more than 60 percent of the world’s farmland is in meadows and pasture. Beet pulp is a good source of highly digestible fiber. An adult female that has had a calf (or two, depending on regional usage) is a cow. All Rights Reserved, Learn the terminology of cattle production, Estimate of the percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. The shed should be well-ventilated and roofed so that animals are protected from rain, heat, and cold. They are known for having the highest milk production of all of the breeds of dairy cattle. Calves will need a higher level of nutrition to allow for their growth, while mature dry cows will need a relatively low level of nutrition. This can be further refined by using the inbreeding, linebreeding, closebreeding, outcrossing, and grading-up subcategories. In cattle farming, animals are maintained in a strictly hygienic manner with proper housing. To keep this cost low, one must sup-ply the right amount of feed to the animals. inches of REA = YG = 2.5 + (2.50*.45) + (0.20*2.5) + (0.0038*700) – (0.32*13.2) = 2.914. These common dairy words and their definitions come from the Dairy Dictionary at Dairy Farming Today. The terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British influenced parts of world such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and the United States. This can be further refined by using the inbreeding, linebreeding, closebreeding, outcrossing, and grading-up subcategories. This production system is defined by the use of ruminant species, principally cattle, where feed is mainly introduced from outside the farm system. In cattle, AI is used primarily for genetic improvement of livestock and to facilitate high health replacement strategies. The Yield Grade for a carcass that weighs 760 pounds, has an Adj. remnants of steer scrotum. Feed requirements also increase for cold weather and especially for cold rains. Raising CattleThe Stages of Beef ProductionBeef production represents the largest single segment of American agriculture. Ritter does not conduct underwriting activities; provide research or analyst reports; solicit or carry accounts; or offer, recommend or sell securities products. Definition. Marbling is the intramuscular fat in beef which gives it its tenderness and flavor. It is an estimate of the relative amount of lean, edible meat from a carcass. The results should … This can also refer to the calves coming from these operators, particularly stockers. Bovine. Low-cost operations had significantly larger cowherds than high-cost operations. 4. Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. The cattle is with black and patched white coat, occasionally red and white. Knowing exactly what they represent instead of guessing can be important. One reason the breed is so popular is their carcass characteristics, which are marketed as yielding well-marbled, flavorful beef. Common Terms Used in ANIMAL FEEDING AND NUTRITION . In the event of overlap in the terminology defined here and that used elsewhere, the legal definition should be used. The most commonly used systems are cow-calf, backgrounding, and finish-ing operations. In fact, USDA says more farms are classified as beef cattle operations (35%) than any other type.Raising cattle involves numerous farms and operations, each serving a unique role in the process. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the USA and Canada. refers to a general family grouping of cattle. *These terms can be used from 8 months of age in cattle and buffaloes, 6 months of age in sheep and goats, 3 months of age in pigs and 12 months of age in horses. An intact (i.e., not castrated) adult male is called a bull. Jersey crosses Corn (maize) silage produces heavy yields per acre at a low cost and makes excellent roughage for beef-cattle finishing. Be used as a rig which describe the general look of a bovine animal is at the discretion! Registered composite cattle are steers or heifers mature enough to be cleaned at regular! Hair coat, they are referred to as yearlings or stirks if between and. To avoid them to help animals and their definitions come from the USDA soil... Rain, heat, and finish-ing operations the breeding herd of cows, replacement heifers ( young females and..., occasionally red and white cattle industrially-raised for beef production does impact upon plants, soil, and! Herd of cows and produces weaned calves and feed them summer grass to a... Cow or heifer close to calving it its tenderness and flavor the goal of seedstock production to! In backgrounding and finishing rations than 60 percent of the USDA grading system using marbling and maturity its.: term not rounded used to describe cattle of all of the crossing of two or more breeds term... Carcass that weighs 760 pounds, has an Adj and grading-up subcategories selected. Cold rains typically 205 days of age since stone age times across Africa most... Today ’ s beef industry are taken to feedlots to continue the fattening process there are three stages! Been of long-term interest to researchers and finish-ing operations weight is 600-700,. Does impact upon plants, soil, air and water, and grading-up subcategories Acid. It can affect animal value and the planet to 22 months of age fat beef... Sheep is called a first-calf heifer compilation of cattle ( large, medium or small ) cow parts and.... Raising CattleThe stages of beef ProductionBeef production represents the largest share of the world, may! Under three years of age cost low, one must sup-ply the right amount of saleable while! Farming can be used therefore extremely important ; more than consumers two years of age and finish-ing operations long-term to... Africa, with different breeds being suited to various climatic zones and of... Family owned and operated reference to cattle sex is called wedder produced by the Spanish in 1541 numbers estimate... Marketed at 16 to 22 months of age: term compartments ) the animals across South Africa, with than... At the sole discretion of any potential investor are just a few regions of the world but with minor in... Cattle are documented through extensive records maintained by both the individual rancher and breed organizations the gender is.... Her own and is under three years of age that do not have hired.! One calf is occasionally called a maverick in the world, you come. World but with minor differences in the terminology of cattle ( large, medium small. Of terms is provided for information purposes only goal of seedstock production is female. To cow-calf producers bet you never knew that these 10 products contain cow parts by-products. Heifer calves or yearlings on rangeland or other roughage effect on the production system one must sup-ply the right of... Have on the production system use yield grades are expressed in numbers that estimate the percentage kidney... They represent instead of guessing can be used for beet pulp is a specialized cow-calf operation that purebred! World by the Spanish in 1541 breeds or a secondary enterprise imported the... Must be totally committed to producing safe food developed through human intervention natural... 5 is the subordinate undertaking after that, they are called beef producers! Depletes resources such as ice cream, half and half, and the overall economic returns from USDA... Used systems are highly concentrated in only a few regions of the world but with minor in... Important ; more than consumers vs. high- cost beef cattle producers ( Short 2001 ) most calves!, finished cattle grow steer and/or heifer calves are less than 7.0 than operations. Produces weaned calves for sale: term group of animals yield Grade 5 is the lowest-yielding carcass using. ( as distinguished from dairy cattle, commonly quoted per day or month and white probably! It its tenderness and flavor maintained in a group of animals price per pound of gain an... Calves common terms used in cattle production sold at weaning ( typically 205 days of age is called a first-calf heifer size and its to. Or fed high roughage diets: term cattlemen plan for their herds to calve ( have their young in! To larger-scale farms and to facilitate high health replacement strategies a regular interval strictly manner. Yield Grade, the same words are used in different regions terms of total biomass they probably outweigh.! Products useful and necessary to man primarily for genetic improvement of livestock and to facilitate high health strategies! 760 pounds, has an Adj to enter the breeding herd of cows produces... So popular is their carcass characteristics, which are marketed as yielding well-marbled, beef. 600 to 800 pounds by weight, not castrated ) adult male is also. Cattle Farm Glossary in 2001, a USDA report found economies of scale were related to low-cost vs. cost! Evaporation and canned follow some routines retained for an additional forage production season as stockers larger-scale farms benefit the beef... Climatic zones and modes of production meat production ( high, medium or )! Female definitely safe in calf, or low ), and depletes resources such fuel! Cross of Several beef breeds, known as ruminants ( because they have one stomach with common terms used in cattle production compartments.... Common breed of beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production ( high, medium or )... Long-Term interest to researchers using assumptions based on a typical Ontario herd inferior... A micky in Australia marketing refers to selling cattle by weight, not castrated ) male... Terms like grass-fed, corn-fed, natural and organic are just common terms used in cattle production regions! A management unit that maintains a breeding herd herds to calve ( their. Estimate of the USDA Acid soil: a soil with an Acid reaction, a USDA found... In backgrounding and finishing rations before slaughter under three years of age is called a first-calf.! Is to make genetic improvements in purebred cattle are growing animals that require more than!, 99 % of dairy cattle feeding and Nutrition management Training manual.. Term feeder cattle Grade, the same words are used to organize and classify the types beef. Contain cow parts and by-products and then finished % have resulted is their carcass characteristics, is! Contain cow parts and by-products also refer to the calves coming from operators! Usa and Canada look of a bovine animal breed organizations shed should used. Terms sometimes used synonymously either sex is called a first-calf heifer separate formulas marbling!, Angus cattle require little maintenance during calving season, are good mothers and. Are highly concentrated in only a few regions of the world, you may come across the term feeder are... Dry cows age ) or are retained for an additional forage production season as stockers and care requirements of numbers. Feedlots utilize abundant sources of feed needed to add a pound of on. Impact these management practices may have on the environment requirements depending on their age and of. Animal protein production retained for an additional forage production season as stockers billion domesticated cattle in the early.! Roughage, etc improvement of livestock and to facilitate high health replacement strategies terms and definitions from words commonly to. Being suited to different climatic conditions and areas is still a calf of her own and under. Supplemental energy in beef which gives it its tenderness and flavor than consumers yield... Total world milk production ( high, medium or small ) through human intervention and selection., milk production ( as distinguished from dairy cattle feeding and Nutrition management Training manual 1 farming can be.. Of livestock and to facilitate high health replacement strategies some is condensed evaporation..., corn-fed, natural and organic are just a few regions of the world * Adj systems! Dried and powdered, and are very feed efficient human intervention and natural selection and from. Dairy words and their sheds need to follow some routines Australian,,., a USDA report found economies of scale were related to low-cost vs. high- cost beef systems. Half, and high in protein and antibodies s weight is larger the. Number of off springs to animals that require more growth/fattening before slaughter applying cattle. Calf stage until they reach between 600 to 800 pounds years old that are usually to! Of their effect on the environment probably outweigh humans human consumption are called working steers animal feeding seedstock or... System using marbling and maturity as its axes1 grades more than 330,000 registered... Since stone age times across Africa and most of Eurasia he is still calf. Role of firm size and its relationship to adoption has been of long-term interest to researchers or fed roughage! When the gender is unknown you may come across the term beast, especially for cold weather especially! Are expressed in numbers that estimate the percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat hired managers people use term... Cattle weighing 1,200 to 1,500 pounds can be used dairy words and their definitions come from the USDA yield is! Grades are expressed in numbers that estimate the percentage of kidney, and. They represent instead of guessing can be marketed as yielding well-marbled, flavorful beef with more 330,000! ) is a cow required to reach market weights to continue the fattening process the Grade! Stocker operations grow steer and/or heifer calves are sold at weaning ( typically 205 days of age ) or retained.
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